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What are the common kidney diseases and what is their cause?

Common kidney disorders include – acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD), nephrolithiasis or kidney stones, and pyelonephritis.

Acute renal failure is a sudden stoppage of kidney functions. It is a life-threatening condition caused by injury, dehydration, or any obstruction in the kidneys. CKD refers to decreased levels of kidney functions and the presence of kidney damage for more than 3 months. It may involve permanent impairment of the kidney functions. The most common causes of this condition are diabetes and high blood pressure. It is a progressive disease, and in advanced stages may result in waste accumulation in the body.

Kidney stones result from the collection of salts within the bladder or kidneys. They can cause severe pain if an enlarged stone blocks the ureter, or a duct connecting the kidneys and the bladder.

Pyelonephritis is a urinary tract infection (UTI) that may affect one or both kidneys. It is often caused by Escherichia coli bacterial infection. The bacteria can move up to the kidneys from the bladder or from other body parts through the bloodstream.

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Source: https://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Education/Medical-Library/