Guide from Marina Weight Loss Center
Why Choose Cedars-Sinai Marina del Rey Hospital for Metabolic Syndrome Treatment?
The highly experienced and well-trained bariatric surgeons at Cedars-Sinai Marina del Rey Hospital understand the importance of getting rid of excess body weight to fight obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Our staff can help you achieve and sustain weight loss through surgery or lifestyle modifications to help you avoid the effects of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome, also called dysmetabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, obesity syndrome, syndrome X, and hypertriglyceridemic waist refers to a cluster of risk factors that increase a patient's risk of developing obesity-related conditions, such as coronary artery disease, type II diabetes, and stroke. There are five conditions that are considered to be metabolic risk factors. If a patient displays three of these five conditions, they are considered to have metabolic syndrome. These metabolic risk factors include:
- Abdominal Obesity: Having a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches in men and more than 35 inches in women) due to excess fat deposits around the stomach. This is a major risk factor for developing heart problems.
- High Blood Pressure: If blood pressure remains high for a prolonged period of time, it can lead to plaque deposits that cause damage to the heart.
- High Fasting Blood sugar: A mild increase in a patient's fasting blood sugar level can be an initial sign of diabetes.
- Low HDL Cholesterol Level: If a patient's HDL cholesterol level is low (below 40 in men and below 50 in women), their risk for heart disease increases.
- High Triglyceride Level
The risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke increases as the number of metabolic risk factors increases. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is closely related to obesity and physical inactivity. In addition, insulin resistance can further increase a patient's chance of developing metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is closely linked to obesity. Other factors that play an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome include genetic factors, family history, and age.
Bariatric Surgical Procedures Used to Treat Metabolic Syndrome at Cedars-Sinai Marina del Rey Hospital
Surgical interventions for metabolic syndrome have not been widely accepted, but bariatric surgery trials conducted in morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome have shown benefits, such as a marked decrease in insulin resistance and levels of inflammatory cytokines. Multiple studies have shown that bariatric surgery results in sustained and substantial weight loss and improves most symptoms of metabolic syndromes, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome can increase the risk of certain perioperative issues, which should be considered before undergoing any major surgical procedure.
Bariatric surgery is a viable option for patients who have been obese for a long time and who have been unsuccessful in losing weight through more conservative diet plans. Bariatric surgery is for obese people with a body mass index (BMI) over 35-40 and significant obesity-related comorbidities.
The majority of bariatric surgical procedures include a restrictive component, meaning that the procedure will limit or restrict the amount of food a person can eat. These procedures make a patient feel full and satisfied even after eating a small amount of food. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is entirely a restrictive procedure. Other commonly performed procedures include laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), sleeve gastrectomy, and pancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. These procedures result in weight loss by diverting nutrients from the duodenum and altering the endocrine and absorptive functions of the gut.
At Cedars-Sinai Marina del Rey Hospital, our minimally invasive surgical techniques help patients experience less pain and postoperative scarring, resulting in a faster recovery time and a quicker return to normal activities.
Drugs and Other Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome
All medical treatment for metabolic syndrome will include a well-structured and guided weight loss program that focuses on eating healthy, exercising regularly, and developing a calorie deficit. At Cedars-Sinai Marina del Rey Hospital, we also advise physical therapy, psychological services, and support groups, because we believe all-around support makes it easier to maintain good nutrition.
Signs and Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome
Nearly all risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome do not produce any signs and symptoms.
A large waist circumference may be an obvious sign of the metabolic syndrome.
Some patients may show symptoms of high blood sugar, particularly if they have type II diabetes.
These symptoms include excessive thirst, increased frequency of urination, especially at night, increased fatigue, and vision problems or blurred vision.
Usually, patients with high blood pressure do not complain of any symptoms, but people in the early stage of hypertension may experience fainting spells, dull headaches, or abnormal nosebleeds.
Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed on the basis of a careful physical examination and blood tests. At least three of the following metabolic risk factors should be present in order to diagnose metabolic syndrome:
- Large waist measurement: A large waistline indicates central or abdominal obesity and an elevated risk of heart disease and other related health concerns. A waist measuring more than 35 inches for women or more than 40 inches for men is a risk factor.
- High level of triglycerides: A triglyceride level in the blood of more than 150 mg/dL.
- Low level of HDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is good cholesterol, as it helps get rid of cholesterol deposited in the arteries. An HDL cholesterol level of less than 50 mg/dL in women and less than 40 mg/ dL in men is considered a metabolic risk factor.
- High blood pressure: If a patient's blood pressure measurement is 130/85 mmHg or more, they are at risk of metabolic syndrome.
- High level of fasting blood sugar: A fasting blood sugar level of 100 mg or higher.
Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome
The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome are:
- Abdominal obesity or excess fat deposition around the central and upper portion of the body.
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body is unable to process blood sugar well.
Other risk factors include:
- Intake of medicines that generate weight gain or altered levels of blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood cholesterol. These types of medications are used in the treatment of allergies and inflammation, HIV, depression, and other mental disorders.
- Racial and ethnic background; Mexican Americans are at the highest risk for metabolic syndrome.
- Personal history or a family history of diabetes.
- Gender; women, especially those that had polycystic ovary syndrome, are more susceptible to metabolic syndrome.
Causes of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is caused by the interplay of factors, such as obesity, a passive lifestyle, insulin resistance, advancing age, and genetic factors. While some people are genetically susceptible to developing insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome, other people develop the condition as a result of excess body fat, insufficient physical activity, and a daily diet high in carbohydrates.
The herbal remedies used in traditional Chinese medicine, such as ginseng, bitter gourd, and berberine, have shown beneficial effects for treating obesity. Still, large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of these agents in the management of the metabolic syndrome.
The best possible method for preventing metabolic syndrome is the adoption of heart-healthy lifestyle changes. These changes can help reduce the risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. If you have heart disease or diabetes already, lifestyle changes can help prevent or delay the occurrence of heart attack, stroke, and complications of diabetes. Keep track of your cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels by scheduling regular visits to your doctor. Some of the tips for heart-healthy lifestyle modifications are:
- Eating heart-healthy food: Include plenty of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean meat, fish, and low-fat dairy products in your diet, and avoid processed food that contains a high amount of salt, sugar, and vegetable oils.
- Be physically active: Perform moderate physical exercise for at least 150 minutes a week. Brisk walking is one of the best and easiest ways to exercise.
- Maintain a healthy weight: Try losing excess weight and sustaining it to reduce the risk of heart disease.
- Manage stress: Relaxation methods, such as meditation and yoga are beneficial.
- Avoid smoking: If you smoke, quit smoking to reduce your risk of metabolic syndrome.
If you are obese or are concerned about metabolic syndrome, the specially trained bariatric surgeons at Marina Weight Loss can answer questions and compare treatment options, including bariatric surgery, to find the most appropriate treatment option for you.